Difference between established scientific theories and models
Scientific models are not that same as scientific theories.
An established scientific theory is the best way we have of understanding the whole topic of the theory. It is based on observation.
A scientific model is also based on observation. But it doesn't claim to to help us to understand the WHOLE topic. It just provides useful predictions about what will happen. We often use two different models to think about the same things or the same events. For example, there are different ways of picturing atoms. None of the ways is wrong. They are all useful for predicting how atoms and material will behave.
Established or cautious?