Eventually, Europe became more politically stable. The Islamic idea of Universities was adopted in Europe. People began to study the astronomy of the Islamic and Ancient Greek worlds. They also looked at the skies for themselves.
At first, Europeans accepted the geocentric model of the Universe.
A big breakthrough came when people developed techniques for making lenses that were good enough for making telescopes. It allowed new observations, and these provided evidence in favour of the heliocentric model of the Solar System.
European scientists include:
Models of the Solar System